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I am setting up ping reboot on my RUT240 routers, but I'd like to better understand all options before actually provisioning them. I have many devices deployed in very hard to reach areas and I need to make sure they don't end up in states in which I can't connect to them remotely.

The ping reboot docs list 5 option: Reboot | Modem restart | Restart mobile connection | (Re)register | none.

Of these, Reboot and none are the only undoubtedly clear ones. What do the others exactly do? How is reregistering different from restarting the mobile connection (is one reregistering with the carrier from scratch, while the other is just closing and reopening the PDP context)? Is Modem restart going to restart only the modem "component" (at the hw level, or just the network services?).

Rebooting the router every time a ping fails seems a bit drastic, since the issue is only in the mobile connection (in my case). Typically, the PDP context doesn't get closed but the connection is lost. What I do now is indeed rebooting them via sms to make them connect again, but I would be happy to only perform a more conservative action to obtain the same result.

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Reboot and none is self explanatory as you said. 

Modem restart - restarts modem hardware.

Restart mobile connection - restarts modem software side of things (network services and etc.)

(Re)register - unregister you from your current registered operator and try to register again.