System logs can be seen by using the command logread. If you'd like to monitor the logs in real-time, then the command logread -f can be used.
Logs can also be found by navigating to System → Administration → Troubleshoot and clicking show for the system or kernel logs.
Finally, logs alongside config files can be downloaded with a troubleshoot file, which can also be generated by navigating to System → Administration → Troubleshoot.
Let me know if none of these options suit you and I'll look for an alternative.