I think I have discovered some interesting things: the problem I have appears only from firmware RUT9XX_R_00.06.06.1 upwards.
In these firmware, if I reset the router and only configure the APN as in the picture:
immediately connects. But if I do any other operation that reloads the SIM settings it does not connect to the data network.
I compared the file configurations:
\ etc \ config \ simcard
\ etc \ config \ network
with the latest working firmware RUT9XX_R_00.06.05.3 and the non-working one RUT9XX_R_00.06.06.1.
As you can see, in the non-working configuration of the right image, the Teltonika sets up the PPP interface and the SIM without authentication (PAP). In fact, in their place, "none" appears.
If I export the conf, change the parameters and reload it the Teltonika works. However, if I update the firmware or change any parameter of the SIM I lose the correction. This must definitely be a bug, perhaps when setting up a manual APN.